The Difference Between Pipe Size and Tube Size

Author: Evelyn

Feb. 04, 2024

Machinery

You have probably heard pipe and tube used interchangeably—but are they different? The answer to that question is yes! The biggest difference between pipe and tube is their shape. Pipe will always be round however tube can be round, square or rectangular. Below are several other factors that make pipe and tube different.

 

When it comes to measurement of pipe, it is measure by the inside diameter, often called the nominal diameter.  Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipe. The term nominal refers to pipe in non-specific terms and identifies the inside diameter with a non-dimensional number. For example, a 2” nominal steel pipe consists of a family of steel pipe with a 2.375″ diameter.

Pipe also has a wall thickness which is referred to by its schedule. The outside of the pipe is always larger than the inside. The difference between the inside diameter (ID) and the outside diameter (OD) is due to the thickness of the wall. Wall thickness also determines the strength of the pipe. Schedule 40 pipe is the most common, however when extra strength is required schedule 80 is available.

 

Round tubing is specified by its actual outside diameter and is equal to the corresponding size. The thickness of tube is defined by a gauge number. Tube size will keep the same OD no matter what the wall thickness is. Tubing also has a tighter manufacturing tolerance than pipe.


Determine What You Need for Your Project—Pipe or Tubing

1-1/2″ pipe size flanges have an opening to fit over 1.90″ OD—the actual outside diameter of 1-1/2″ pipe. 1-1/2″ tubing has a true 1.50″ outside diameter. The above shows the difference between a 1-1/2″ pipe flange and a 1-1/2″ tube flange.

Here is a table indicating the actual dimensions for several standard pipe sizes.

 

 

Wall Thickness

Nominal Pipe Size

Outside
Diameter

Schedule 5

Schedule 10

Schedule 40

Schedule 80

1/2″
3/4″
1″
1-1/4″
1-1/2″
2″
2-1/2″
3″
3-1/2″
4″
5″
6″

.840″
1.050″
1.315″
1.660″
1.900″
2.375″
2.875″
3.500″
4.000″
4.500″
5.560″
6.630″

.065″
.065″
.065″
.065″
.065″
.065″
.083″
.083″
.083″
.083″
.109″
.109″

.083″
.083″
.109″
.109″
.109″
.109″
.120″
.120″
.120″
.120″
.134″
.134″

.109″
.113″
.133″
.140″
.145″
.154″
.203″
.216″
.226″
.237″
.258″
.280″

.147″
.154″
.179″
.191″
.200″
.218″
.276″
.300″
.318″
.337″
.375″
.432″


 

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The Difference Between a Pipe and a Tube

In the manufacturing industry one often hear terms such as steel pipes or steel tubing. Often times, it is often not clear what the difference is between a pipe and a tube.

Many people think that the word has the exact same meaning and use the word "pipe" and "tube" interchangeably. That's however wrong.

There are a couple of key differences between tubes and pipes:

  • A pipe is a vessel - a tube is structural
  • A pipe is measured in terms of its ID (inside diameter)
  • A tube is measured in terms of its OD (outside diameter).

A hollow cylinder has 3 important dimensions. These dimensions are:

  • The Outside Diameter (OD)
  • The Inside Diameter (ID), and
  • The wall thickness (wt)

These three dimensions are related by a very simple equation:

OD = ID + 2*wt

One can completely specify a piece of pipe or tube by supplying any two of these numbers.

Tubing is typically used in structures so the OD (or Outside Diameter) is the important number. The strength of a steel tube depends on its wall thickness. So tubing is specified by the outside diameter as well as its wall thickness. Steel tubes are also not only supplied in round sections but can be formed into square and rectangular tubes.  

Pipes are normally used to transport gases or fluids so it is important to know the capacity of the pipe. Here the internal cross-sectional area defined by the ID (or Inside Diameter) is important. It is common to identify pipes in inches by using NPS or "Nominal Pipe Size". The metric equivalent is called DN or "diameter nominal". The metric designations conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) usage and apply to all plumbing, natural gas, heating oil, and miscellaneous piping used in buildings. A plumber always knows that the id on the pipe label is only a *nominal* id.

As an example, a (nominal) 1/8" wrought iron pipe will typically have a *measured* id of 0.269" (schedule 40) or 0.215" (schedule 80).  The key in the difference is the application where both tube and pipe are used for. For instance: a (nominal) 1/8" schedule 40 pipe will have a wall thickness of 0.068 (id=0.269) while a 1/8" schedule 80 pipe will have a wall thickness of 0.095 (id=0.215). And these schedule numbers do not reflect a constant wall thickness. For instance, a (nominal) 1/4 schedule 40 pipe has a wt=0.088 while the same pipe in schedule 80 has wt=0.119

Generally speaking, a tube will have a consistent OD and its ID will change. Steel tubes used in structural applications would most likely be seam welded while pipes are normally a seamless steel product. Some steel tubes are also used in the transport of fluids, even though they are seam welded. These include steel tubes for water pipes and welded tubes are commonly used in the agricultural industry for manufacturing spindles. Such tubes will undergo a process called pressure testing were the tube is sealed at both ends and water is pumped through the tube up to a certain level of pressure. This will quickly indicate if there is a lead or a bad spot in the weld of the circular hollow section tested.

The Difference Between Pipe Size and Tube Size

The Difference Between a Pipe and Tube

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